The fascination with gold is a story which spans millennia, however scientists have recently found a new interest for gold when it is divided into miniscule grains, such as gold nanoparticles. This scientific enthusiasm started in various fields of science in the middle of the 1980s and the present book offers a panorama of the major scientific achievements obtained with gold nanoparticles.Various topics are reviewed such as: gold nanoparticle preparation methods, their plasmon resonance and thermo-optical properties, their catalytic properties, their use in biology and medicine as well as their possible toxicity and, finally, their future technological applications. The book also contains an in-depth study of the use of gold nanoparticles throughout the ages, starting from times where the concept of nanoparticles was beyond the realm of human imagination. All these topics are presented by world-class scientists within a set of self-contained chapters.This book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and scientists who need an introduction to gold nanoparticles. It is also suitable for experts in the related areas of chemistry, biology, material science, optics and physics, who are interested in broadening their knowledge and who wish to have an overview of the subject. Each chapter gradually leads the reader from the basics of a topic towards some of the current scientific challenges in the area. The necessary background material to achieve a solid understanding of each topic and the scientific literature to go further in the field is provided.